과학기술

Closed Captioning: More Ingenious than You Know

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Over the years I’ve found that there are plenty of people who use captions, not just those who need them. But did you know that it took until the 1970’s for anyone to think of putting captions on TV? I can sort of understand that, since captions might be annoying if you don’t want them, but closed captioning would save the day and provide access to all, but only when needed.
Here's the link for making translated captions for my videos:
koplayers.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UCy0tKL1T7wFoYcxCe0xjN6Q
Please don't feel compelled to do it, but if you'd like to give a bit of your time, I promise you'll get that imaginary badge!
Technology connections on Twitter (I’m just as weird on the social Internet as I am here on KOplayers):
TechConnectify
The TC Subreddit (warning: I’m not good at Reddit)
www.reddit.com/r/technologyconnections
Technology Connections 2 (my second channel where I upload weird stuff from time to time)
koplayers.info/tv/lRwC5Vc8HrB6vGx6Ti-lhA
Here’s that nifty Chicago Tribune article:
www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1989-05-05-8904100174-story.html
And here’s those captioning glasses:
www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/teen-inventors-create-live-closed-captioning-glasses-deaf-180957155/
(sadly, it looks like the creators had started an indiegogo for this, and it failed pretty badly. Quite a shame, as this could be quite useful! However, I suppose a phone app might be good enough. Might be)
Some history from the NCI:
www.ncicap.org/about-us/history-of-closed-captioning/
You can support this channel on Patreon! It has been amazing what Patreon has done for this channel, but also for me (your dorky host) personally. Through the support of people just like you, Technology Connections has become my job and I am so excited and thankful for it! If you’d like to join the fine folks in a pledge to help the channel grow, please check out my Patreon page. Thank you for your consideration!
www.patreon.com/technologyconnections
And thank you to the following patrons!
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  1. Technology Connections

    Technology Connections

    년 전

    A few notes/corrections: It's 525 times per _frame,_ not second. I messed that up. It's 15,750 times per second! Many of you have pointed out that you _can_ indeed define the position of captions. But, it's a really clunky ordeal and has its downsides. If I were to upload a specific file type (which funny enough is based on the Line 21 caption standard) then I could do it. However, I hadn't realized that the viewer can reposition them at will, and if I *do* upload the file, this overrides that functionality. So, uh, it's still not great. I would really like KOplayers to allow me to move them from their built-in editor, which is what the vast majority of creators use. I admittedly made an assumption about the Rear Window Captioning System, and that assumption was that it's still in widespread use. Nope. It may still be out there, but there are now wireless receivers that can be incorporated as a heads-up display or a little LCD panel, and apparently these are cheaper to implement than the Rear Window system (I'm surprised by that honestly, but whatever). But, I still think that Rear Window is the most clever, if not the most prevalent anymore. Regarding Blu-Ray and line 21--apparently this is kinda supported but it's limited to older players. I guess there was some deal with movie studios where Blu-Ray would phase out analog connections by 2009 or something like that, so the fact that my PS3 couldn't output it was just because it's too new. Or something like that, I'm fuzzy on the details. But now I'm curious if new releases are still encoded with text metadata for line 21 captions. Maybe I need to find an older Blu-Ray player to test it. And lastly, a few people have asked over many videos how I am filming CRTs without flickering or framerate issues. I'm about to answer that in a TC2 video, and you can check it out here! koplayers.info/show/MGowSUMwYnUzZGc.html

    • iwantitpaintedblack

      iwantitpaintedblack

      26 일 전

      @johnm2012 Okay, what if we take three tuners, one is tuned to the channel youre currently watching, and the other two are tuned to the next and the previous channel, so that if you switch to the next channel, the tv simply switches to the next tuner and the previous one loads the next station to save time, like a bufffer

    • Maciej Łaszewski

      Maciej Łaszewski

      27 일 전

      @iwantitpaintedblack It's also about properties of digital stream. After tuning to frequency, demodulate, demultiplex you still get data that you need to sync to. In Analogue TV you get sync every frame (there's something about it in this video). In digital stream however you get sync every N frames depending on the way the stream was encoded. On average it's about 1 sec ( 24,25,30 or 60 frames depending on source video) and at the scene change, but it can be as fast as 1 frame (the video gets enormously big then) and as slow as 1 minute (you may need up to 1 minute to tune to video). You've probably noticed, that you have similar delay at the start of any video from disk, but you ignore it since you know it's from disk :-)

    • o1230sponge

      o1230sponge

      개월 전

      I have a Blu-ray player with Composite, Component, and HDMI output. The oldest Blu-ray I have access to is from 2014(My mom has older ones that are in storage right now) so I can't say about earlier Blu-rays, but from testing with my oldest two Blu-rays over composite video I did not come across any line 21 captions. I thought that would be the case after noticing the lack of a closed captioning logo on the cases. There may be on the older discs, but I feel if so it would have only been for a few years before being ditched in favor of the subtitles on disc.

    • El Has Music

      El Has Music

      개월 전

      I uploaded a subtitle track to KOplayers on a different channel, and it was a track with colour, and horizontal and vertical positioning, and it all worked. I discovered KOplayers is compatible with CEA-608 captions, but doesn't let us edit them without deleting the formatting. As long as you video editor lets you embed captions in a video, and you thoroughly check for errors and will never need to change them, all you need to do is make them in the video editor whilst making the video.

    • Michami

      Michami

      개월 전

      My wife is deaf and we found out that several theaters in our area have captioning. Now it's a wireless device that sits in the cup holder and has an LED display. The fact that HDMI doesn't carry CC is very annoying. We have many old DVDs that have CC, but no subtitles. We can't watch them on our BluRay player anymore and the player doesn't have a way to convert CC to subtitles.

  2. juju09877

    juju09877

    3 시간 전

    This dude makes the best videos

  3. Mateus Bittencourt

    Mateus Bittencourt

    5 시간 전

    Where's that Teletext video... I've been waiting for 2 years now.

  4. gigastrike2

    gigastrike2

    7 시간 전

    Wait...you mean the black box wasn't so that blind people could save power?

  5. KappaKappaKappaKappa

    KappaKappaKappaKappa

    7 시간 전

    wait what, you guys dont have teletext?

  6. Jabberwockybird

    Jabberwockybird

    11 시간 전

    Sherlock Holmes!

  7. Chris Havill

    Chris Havill

    일 전

    Did he ever make the teletext video? I tried searching but nothing popped up

  8. 109Rage

    109Rage

    일 전

    Nowadays, there's three standards of subtitles that are widely used online. SRT, VTT, and ASS. SRT (SubRip) is basically closed captioning as a text file, and was created to rip DVD subtitles. it's the most barbones you can get. VTT (or WebVTT) is basically SRT, but with some rudimentary HTML and CSS support (implementation varies by browser), and as it's official name tells you, was made for exclusive use over the web, and is used by KOplayers (although it's features aren't really utilized, and the captions end up rendered by their own system anyways). In theory, a browser that allowed you to apply arbitrator HTML and CSS to these subtitles could have some very interesting effects, like those used in the next format. ASS (Advanced Sub Station) is possibly the most powerful "captioning" format there is available, which is why it's the format of choice for fan groups translating anime. It doesn't just let you add text, or move it around a bit. Some groups full on redraw signs and images using the powerful rendering capabilities, such that Japanese text in the background can be seamlessly overwritten with English texts, without editing the video file at all, for those special weebs who want to rewatch their favorite anime without subtitles. For most cases, it's a rather bloated format, but it's something of an art for those who want to get creative with subtitles.

  9. Knox Gibson

    Knox Gibson

    일 전

    Where's the video about Teletext?!?! 🙉

  10. Warren Lehmkuhle

    Warren Lehmkuhle

    일 전

    I remember in 2008 on Disney Jr, when it said something to like “Press something for Spanish” I am not sure if it was a translation or if it was just subtitles, but either way how did it work? Was Disney Jr bored casting a second captions on a different line? Like say line 20?

  11. jonathan tippy

    jonathan tippy

    2 일 전

    1:02 clothed captioning

  12. Anthony Cervantes

    Anthony Cervantes

    4 일 전

    14:30 Typically, Blu-ray Discs don't have closed captions, but Fox Blu-rays from 2006 to late 2008 actually had Line 21 captions, of course at the time, they would only be visible through regular 480i composite output (why would you do that to a Blu-ray movie?). However, nowadays, many Blu-ray Disc players and the PlayStation 3 and 4 can actually natively decode and display Line 21 closed captions on DVDs and those Fox Blu-rays.

  13. Renneth Jarrett

    Renneth Jarrett

    4 일 전

    I assume this is related to the idea of channel ID and TV show information that was available on Sony VCR's as well.

  14. gars129

    gars129

    4 일 전

    Im a native spanish speaker and Closed Captioning in the cable/vhs era really helped me learn to understand english. Even today, it is very useful for understanding more difficult to understand english accents.

  15. Kelly Kerr

    Kelly Kerr

    6 일 전

    The closed captioning helps me to learn their language. I put it on the correct languages to watch. If I really don’t understand, I will then put it In English

  16. Sometimes I do things

    Sometimes I do things

    6 일 전

    Turns out KOplayers added more captioning tools; I've seen videos have even *animated* captions. Fancy!

  17. Taylor Woolston

    Taylor Woolston

    8 일 전

    Now that the CED series is done, will TeleText be coming soon?

  18. WindSpeed3990 Second Channel

    WindSpeed3990 Second Channel

    10 일 전

    They have someone that types the live news you can tell because if you turn on captions with sound on, it doesn’t line up.

  19. Tessa

    Tessa

    11 일 전

    Gave you a subscribe just because you actually use the CC. I have auditory processing issues, and slight hearing loss from my time in the Navy, and often watch youtube while taking care of my house, it is so hard to watch without them and often I miss out on good content just because I can't make out what people are saying.

  20. petrolhead1987

    petrolhead1987

    12 일 전

    Your efforts on CC are greatly appreciated by the hearing impaired. I have endured the auto captions on KOplayers, although they can sometimes be rudely entertaining, they are extremely difficult for us deaf folk.

  21. MacAdvisor

    MacAdvisor

    13 일 전

    Now that you've covered subtitles, are you going to cover the supertitles used in the Met movie theater broadcasts?

  22. Architector #4

    Architector #4

    14 일 전

    The open captions at 1:26 have almost an identical font to the one my video player(which I use to watch KOplayers videos) uses for closed captions, and seeing both was quite weird: i.imgur.com/vfu9POk.png

  23. James B

    James B

    16 일 전

    Bro, you stole my childhood portable TV...

  24. SkarmoryThePG

    SkarmoryThePG

    16 일 전

    Oh.... my god.... if you could arrange youtube captions like that...

  25. רועי סיני

    רועי סיני

    17 일 전

    Until now I thought that PBS is just some youtube channels (like It's Okay To Be Smart, Physics Girl, Space Time, Eons, Above The Noise, Sound Field, Crash Course and Two Cents) and then you mentioned them in this video and I was like wait what?! And then I googled them and found they made Arthur and Sesame Street and stuff. BTW I'm not American.

  26. Para Dux

    Para Dux

    18 일 전

    Work on your busted down politically motivated platform you tube! Can’t even get captions up to pre civil rights movement standards. Hypocrites.

  27. Dickson Cho

    Dickson Cho

    18 일 전

    Captions were/are available in different colours. Back in the 90s when CC was becoming readily available on TVs, Music Videos were captioned of course, Alanis Morrisettes song “Ironic”, which featured her singing different parts of the song as herself in a single car, used closed captions and changed colour based on the character singing. It was one of the few times I recall seeing the feature used.

  28. NoSkates

    NoSkates

    20 일 전

    Oh good, you'll be doing "a video" on the CED.

  29. Guillermo Ortiz

    Guillermo Ortiz

    20 일 전

    I'd love to see you explain smartphones the way you explain old tech

  30. Jake The T

    Jake The T

    20 일 전

    I'm genuinely surprised that you did so much research, but then failed to find out why the captions are all uppercase for speech, and lowercase for action descriptors. All you had to do was talk to a hearing impaired person who uses them, like me! So, I'll enlighten you... the most important part of a program, especially for someone reading the captions, is the speech. So the NCI chose for the speech to be all caps and the actions not.

  31. aguiremedia

    aguiremedia

    21 일 전

    I love your videos. I love your style. I am very happy you are able to make videos and make a living doing so. Keep it up

  32. Peter D Morrison

    Peter D Morrison

    21 일 전

    I built a Teletext decoder in 1979, using discrete logic circuits, based on an article in the UK publication Wireless World. It could also receive Closed Captions (Subtitles).

  33. Peter D Morrison

    Peter D Morrison

    21 일 전

    The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in the UK was the first broadcaster to include closed captions (subtitles in the UK) in 1979 based on the Teletext framework for pre-recorded programming. This became the international standard for subtitles and closed captions.

  34. Dylan Crow

    Dylan Crow

    22 일 전

    Where's the part about the text tv?

  35. PiersKittel

    PiersKittel

    22 일 전

    Thanks for this video and thanks for mentioning Teletext! Interestingly, closed captions in the UK was quite different - colour was always used, and they used certain colours to represent characters. I remember they used to show "John - BLUE" "Jane - GREEN" "James - RED" but in the early/mid 90s they stopped that, and they used random colours each time a different speaker started talking. Our closed captions were proper case too, not all upper case so watching US programmes were really jarring! UK closed captions could be expanded to twice the standard size though any captions that was at the top of the picture would not be visible. Luckily as teletext was in high demand, all TVs had teletext decoders built in as standard early on, so deaf people benefited from this. Due to the way VHS PAL recorders worked, it couldn't record the teletext stream (unless you had a SVHS recorder), and thus we didn't have closed captions on tapes. Due to the gap in the market, the US NCI came to the UK and sold their products here, so we finally got closed captions on tapes in the mid 90s, but it was following the US format - all black & white. We had to buy expensive special decoders to watch closed captioned tapes as our TVs weren't able to understand Line 21 captions. Another consequence of this was that only pre-recorded tapes had closed captions - recorded tapes didn't have closed captions. With the advent of DVDs, NCI quickly vanished. As a consequence of this, closed captions has been black & white ever since even though colour is supported by digital closed captions on DVDs, DVB, internet video, etc - I really miss colour closed captions!

  36. tez613

    tez613

    23 일 전

    Yes he is going to do a video on RCA 5 of them infact.

  37. David Calman

    David Calman

    23 일 전

    Yeah, Line 21 usually makes it onto VHS, whereas 888 is not happening.

  38. Gareth Evans

    Gareth Evans

    24 일 전

    Modern digital interfaces such as HDMI and DisplayPort still use blanking intervals to synchronise the display (yes, even 4K). It's done in your GPU's display settings, looking custom resolutions/ monitor overclocking. It varies a little between brands but AND and Nvidia support it. The blanking interview is just as relevant now as it was back then. Maybe more so as you can configure: the resolution, refresh rate, colour depth, interlacing, vertical blanking, horizontal blanking...

  39. Kairu Hakubi

    Kairu Hakubi

    24 일 전

    the 'cc2' channel option on the TVs is also the teletext thing, right? I seem to remember it putting up a big black box from time to time.

  40. Kairu Hakubi

    Kairu Hakubi

    24 일 전

    The truly weird thing is when you're watching a streaming rip somewhere and see captions thanks, matey! Captions are great for when you can't understand someone very well, which is all the damn time. especially watching shit sped up.

  41. tillhecameback

    tillhecameback

    24 일 전

    oh snap #shots_fired_at_youtube

  42. londontrada

    londontrada

    25 일 전

    Did you ever do the Teletext video? I can't see it in your list?

  43. Jon-Pierre Gentil

    Jon-Pierre Gentil

    26 일 전

    ♫ insufferably smooth jazz ♫

  44. Maiahi

    Maiahi

    26 일 전

    You're out of focus, bro!

  45. bzqp2

    bzqp2

    26 일 전

    Where is the promised teletext video? :(

  46. formerx

    formerx

    27 일 전

    Dude, this is one of your finest! Lots of fun things peppered among the sciencey facts. Excellent!!

  47. Vikram Prince Rai

    Vikram Prince Rai

    27 일 전

    Metadata is data about data, so captions are not metadata

  48. Jason Gill

    Jason Gill

    27 일 전

    Silent films were closed caption - change my mind.

  49. Catalin Badalan

    Catalin Badalan

    27 일 전

    I wonder why did I just turned on Closed Captioning on YT..?

  50. Valtteri Asikainen

    Valtteri Asikainen

    27 일 전

    So when are we getting that teletext video?

  51. CS_FL

    CS_FL

    28 일 전

    I recognize that movie!!

    • Andrew Aronson

      Andrew Aronson

      26 일 전

      Shut up!

  52. imacg4

    imacg4

    28 일 전

    Apparently you can control the position of your captions of KOplayers videos using a specific subtitles format, introduced in this video: koplayers.info/show/alZURXdKOUNraXc.html

  53. Kevin Haake

    Kevin Haake

    28 일 전

    ♥ teletext

  54. Enemyofreali7y

    Enemyofreali7y

    28 일 전

    I am so happy I found this channel.

  55. Tzisorey Tigerwuf

    Tzisorey Tigerwuf

    29 일 전

  56. reap62

    reap62

    29 일 전

    Since we’re complaining about bad captions/subtitles... netflix, that is all

  57. Akotski1338

    Akotski1338

    29 일 전

    I always turn on auto generated captions because it’s interesting to see how it handles things

  58. Joey Mormann

    Joey Mormann

    29 일 전

    Wait... are you Kid TV?

  59. Joey Mormann

    Joey Mormann

    29 일 전

    It was a cooking show that showed you how to cook. If any program DIDN’T need captions it was that one. Nobody’s going to mistake lots of wine for cyanide

  60. ChrisS82

    ChrisS82

    29 일 전

    Where did you learn all of the information that you know? Like seriously man you are an encyclopedia of Technology.

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